The commission said nothing of oligarchism or usury, but gave all the blame to the excessive power which the Roman pontiffs had arrogated to themselves. Mary’s succession was helped by Sir William Cecil, the first Baron Burghley, a Venetian agent who had been a key figure of the last period of Edward VI’s reign. In February 1506, with the Cambrai war clouds on the horizon, Aldus had written to Mutianus’s disciple Urbanus: “I most highly esteem S. Mutianus Rufus because of his learning and humanity and confess myself to be very much in his debt, on the one hand because he constantly speaks well of me, and on the other because he kindly procured for me the friendship of a man decked out with learning and holy ways like you. During the campaign leading up to the rout at the White Mountain, Thurn was constantly disputing with the Palatine Elector’s generals about who was in command. The traditional rate of interest was above 20% – a Volcker prime rate. $45.00.) Pole was close to the Venetian banker Alvise Priuli. Christian of Anhalt was a vital node of Paolo Sarpi’s network, and in the 1870’s the Archives of the German city of Bernberg contained a correspondence between Christian and Sarpi. It is remarkable to observe how many of the key protagonists who detonated the Thirty Years’ War can be identified as Venetian agents. Milton called Sarpi “Padre Paolo the great unmasker of the Tridentine Council,” “Padre Paolo the great Venetian antagonist of the Pope,” and “the great and learned Padre Paolo.” Indeed, a whole passage in Milton’s famous “Areopagitica,” the one dealing with the Council of Trent, closely follows Sarpi’s account. It is not surprising that men exclusively dictated the societal expectations of women. The Council of Trent. 2. If it was truly a Counter Reformation, then it must have been called forth or at least greatly influenced by the Protestant Reformation. They appear to have been thinking of the fundamentalism of isolated Biblical quotations as it has in fact flourished among the Protestant sects.) [Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, XLV, pp. But Spanish forces did reach the front, forcing the Venetians to accept a negotiated peace. The Protestant Union was organized by Prince Christian of Anhalt, the senior advisor to the Elector Palatine. The Counter-Reformation was the official reaction of the Roman Catholic Church against the Protestant Reformation; the Counter-Reformation was slow at the beginning. As for Pole, he is important because of his later role in England. They soon struck terror in me who heard them. Mutianus came to know Aldus Manutius, the celebrated Venetian publisher of Latin, Greek, and other learned texts (and the target of Erasmus’s satire in the hilarious Opulentia Sordida). 169-171] Frederick was not the only one infected by the Rosicrucian bacillus in these years in which the saga of “Christian Rosenkreuz” first appeared in Germany. Research seminar series 2015-16; Speaker: Faith Trend (University of Birmingham). During this period, according to one account, an emissary of the Elector of the Palatinate reported that he had been taken by the English ambassador to Venice to visit a Calvinist Congregation of more than 1,000 people in Venice, including 300 of the top patricians, of which Sarpi was the leader. A total of 2,626 books or pamphlets written between 1471 and 1700 in the vernacular addressed female concerns, with over one thousand printed by 1600. And in truth, if they had a leader, even though they have been most severely punished, there is no doubt that they would rebel again. This is similar to Luther’s starting point. Bacon was also in frequent contact by letter with the Venetian senator and patrician Domenico Molino. 265-68] At a deeper level, Venice wanted a catastrophic general war in Europe from which Venice could hold aloof, thus surviving at least until the process of the metastasis of the fondi into northern Europe could be completed – until the time, say, of the founding of the Bank of England at the end of the 1600s. In July 1518, Luther was summoned to Rome by the Holy See, and he appealed urgently for help: “I now need your help most urgently, my Spalatin, and so does the honor of our whole university!” At the next imperial diet, Cardinal Cajetan asked for money to fight the Turks, only to be answered by a rehearsal of the complaints of the German nation against the Holy See. Pole on one occasion advised Vittoria Colonna that she should believe as if salvation depended on faith alone, while acting as if it were dependent on good works as well. The Catholic Reformation is also referred to frequently as the Counter Reformation. Furthermore, Venice’s widely diverse population cultivated a broader-minded and more tolerant society that granted women alternate means of establishing themselves. Spalatin accompanied Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521 as his principal handler, spin doctor, and adviser. Awareness of all this came to Valdez, like Contarini, through “esperienza.” Valdez’s followers were mainly oligarchs, and his works were published in Venice. Sarpi had many English admirers; one was Izaak Walton, the author of the famous “Compleat Angler.” Another was John Milton, who had repeated praise for Fra Paolo. Especially the Spanish truce with the Dutch was viewed with alarm by the Venetians, since this would free up veteran Spanish troops who could be used in a war against Venice. Paolo Veronese, Feast in the House of Levi, 1573, oil on canvas, 18 feet 3 inches x 42 feet, Accademia, Venice Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris and Dr. Steven Zucker If you're seeing this message, it means we're having trouble loading external resources on our website. One letter in Latin from Bacon to Micanzio has been located; here Bacon discusses a plan for a Latin edition of his complete works. In those days of greater theological knowledge, this could be clearly recognized as a new variation on Manicheanism, the idea that good and evil are equally necessary parts of the creation. But the Venetian oligarchs Giustinian and Quirini, in their pioneering 1513 reform proposals addressed to Pope Leo X attacked the decadent scholasticism of the Sorbonne, saying that the education of clergy must no longer be based on the “fallacious erudition of the Parisians” and similar “pagan fables.” [Jedin, “Contributo,” p. 112] (Instead, Giustinian-Querini recommended Holy Scripture and Church fathers, especially St. Augustine. But the entry of the new great powers into Italy also prepared the greatest shock in Venetian history: the War of the League of Cambrai. Later, Contarini and Giorgi became close friends. It has been widely stated that Italian society in the Renaissance was largely secular. (This puts Luther’s “Here I stay, I cannot do otherwise” in a new light.) With Paolo Paruta, we already have the economic man enshrined in the myths of Adam Smith: “The desire to grow rich is as natural in us as the desire to live. She had been in the Juan Valdez circle and the Oratory of Divine Love. Catholic Church - Wikipedia As part of the Counter-Reformation, in 1563 the Council of Trent decreed that a Roman Catholic marriage would be recognized only if the marriage ceremony was officiated by a priest with two witnesses. The overall thrust of the document is best summed up in the following two passages: “We think, Holy Father, that this has to be established before all other things: as Aristotle says in his ‘Politics’, just as in any republic, so in the ecclesiastical governance of the church of Christ, this rule has to be observed before all others: that the laws have to be complied with as much as possible.