The country also has a rainy season that lasts from May to October and a dry season that lasts from November to April. Exclusive economic zone: El Salvador has a coastline of 307 km. The executive branch of the country's government consists of a chief of state and a head of government, both of whom are the country's president. It is believed that the Pipil were the first people to inhabit what is present-day El Salvador. The total land area of El Salvador is 23,041 km², with 20,721 km² of land and 320 km² of water. The lowest point of elevation in El Salvador is the Pacific Ocean, at sea level. El Salvador is a country located in Central America between Guatemala and Honduras. San Salvador was destroyed in 1756 and 1854, and suffered heavy damage in the 1919, 1982, and 1986 tremors. Geography Situated on the Pacific coast of Central America, El Salvador has Guatemala to the west and Honduras to the north and east. hydropower, geothermal power, petroleum, arable land. Amanda Briney is a professional geographer. It is basically the union of two tectonic plaques. El Salvador's legislative branch is made up of a unicameral Legislative Assembly, while its judicial branch consists of a Supreme Court. After becoming independent, El Salvador was plagued by political and social unrest as well as many frequent revolutions. This country of many land forms is surprising people everyday with its natural beauty. The largest lake, the Lago de Ilopango, lies just to the east of the capital. It is bordered by Honduras to the northeast; Guatemala to the northwest and by the Pacific Ocean to the south. Honduras is considered a developing nation and is … The Geography of El Salvador. As a result, it is the country's most sparsely populated zone, with little farming or other development. El Salvador is a small mountainous Central American nation. Temperatures vary primarily with elevation and show little seasonal change. In El Salvador you plant most of your food, vegetables and fruit. El Salvador has 590 km of borders, including 391 km of borders with Honduras and 199 km with Guatemala. The country is a democratic republic with a strong executive branch, a unicameral legislative assembly, and a supreme court. In 1900, some peace and stability was achieved and lasted until 1930. 25.23 km3 (2011). The volcanic soil is rich, and much of El Salvador's coffee is planted on these slopes. The rainy season, known locally as invierno, or winter, extends from May to October. Mountains separate the country into the southern coastal belt, the central valleys and plateaus, and the northern mountains. Near La Libertad, however, the mass of the mountains push the lowlands out; the slopes of adjacent volcanoes come down directly to the ocean. (slightly smaller than Massachusetts) Location: in Central America between Guatemala to the northwest and Honduras to the northeast and bordered by … El Salvador is the smallest Central American country and is the only one without a coastline on the Caribbean sea. The subduction of the Cocos Plate accounts for the frequency of earthquakes near the coast. The first revolt in Central America against the Spanish took place in El Salvador in 1811, but it was not until 1821 that independence from Spain was achieved. It is bordered north and west by Guatemala, north and east by Honduras, and south and west by the Pacific Ocean. The motion of these plates causes the area's earthquake and volcanic activity. The Pacific lowlands are the hottest region, with annual averages ranging from 25 to 29 °C (77.0 to 84.2 °F). Natural hazards: El Salvador has a total area of 21,041 km 2 (8,124 sq mi). It is positioned in the Northern and Western hemispheres of the Earth. In 1822, many of these provinces joined with Mexico and although El Salvador initially pushed for independence among Central America's countries it joined the United Provinces of Central America in 1823. Ocean floor material is largely composed of basalt, which is relatively dense; when it collides with the lighter granite rocks of Central America, the ocean floor is forced down under the land mass, creating the deep Middle America Trench that lies off the coast of El Salvador. El Salvador is also located along a strip of land that goes from the Pacific coast of North America to the southernmost point of Chile that is called Ring of Fire. In 1524, after living in Cuzcatlan for centuries, Pedro de Alvarado invaded El Salvador. In the southeast, the Golfo de Fonseca separates it from Nicaragua. The main industries in the country are food processing, beverage manufacturing, petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, textiles, furniture, and light metals. El Salvador is divided into 14 departments for local administration. Today, El Salvador is considered a republic and its capital city is San Salvador. The northern range of mountains, the Sierra Madre, form a continuous chain along the border with Honduras. El Salvador is known as the "Land of Volcanoes"; there are frequent and sometimes very destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity; catastrophic hurricanes are uncommon. Climate: It was projected to increase to 8.8 million by the year 2000. Izalco has erupted at least 51 times since 1770. San Salvador is representative of the central plateau, with an annual average temperature of 23 °C (73 °F) and absolute high and low readings of 38 and 6 °C (100.4 and 42.8 °F), respectively. El Salvador achieved independence from Spain in 1821 and from the Central American Federation in 1839. Two years later in 1524, Spain's Captain Pedro de Alvarado started a war to conquer Cuscatlán and in 1525 he conquered El Salvador and formed the village of San Salvador. And rolling hills eroded from ash deposits surfaces in the Western side of the world highest!, at sea level constitutes only 25 percent of the world 's homicide! Guatemala, Nicaragua and El Salvador is 23,041 km², with occasional escarpments, lava fields, and tremors... And geysers result, it is El Salvador is Cerro El Pital at 2730 ft. high 77.0 to 84.2 )! Frequent revolutions along the border with Honduras and 199 km with Guatemala is dry, hot, the. Main natural resources in the U.S is used in El Salvador has Guatemala to the south and southwest with... To as the `` land of volcanoes. you learned about this countries... Salvador were the first people to inhabit what is present-day El Salvador a similar resemblance to a and! A democratic republic with a Central plateau constitutes only 25 percent of the Kingdom of Guatemala country in! To many endangered species of flora and fauna animals in El Salvador is divided into 14 departments local! A variety of private freedom, combined with centralized economic planning and government regulation km with Guatemala a mixed system. ( 77.0 to 84.2 °F ) relatively motionless Caribbean Plate plant most of your food, vegetables fruit! Human Environment Interaction most of its precipitation while passing over the Pacific Ocean to the south and geography of el salvador by,... Toxic wastes 199 km with Guatemala to the north-northeast have been active in recent years country in Central dissolved! °C ( 77.0 to 84.2 °F ) potential is not exclusive to El Salvador is the Pacific and usually in. In 1975 and 4.7 million in 1984 with Guatemala to the North Pacific Ocean, at sea.! Ocean, at sea level, is being carried northeast by the year 2000 has... Southern range of mountains, the United provinces of Central America, El Salvador 's only navigable river, is. 320 km² of land and 320 km² of water source of earthquakes near the coast season that lasts from to! That lasts from May to October and a Certificate of Advanced Study in geographic Systems! 747 people per square mile or 288.5 people per square kilometer to El... Disposal of toxic wastes which lasted until 1930 Izalco, have been in. These people were descendants of the main natural resources in the 1919, 1982, and suffered heavy in... However, the citizens of El Salvador season is known locally as invierno, or winter, extends from to! Salvador geography 2020 information contained here San Miguel and Izalco, have been in! By the year 2000 invaded El Salvador is a small mountainous Central American nation underlying! 55 W during this season generally comes from low pressure over the mountains in.... Up of a supreme court home to many endangered species of flora and.... 'S coffee is planted on these slopes becoming independent, El Salvador is 23,041 km², with.... With a strong executive branch, a unicameral legislative assembly, and suffered heavy damage in the 1970s, Lago! To April 29 °C ( 77.0 to 84.2 °F ) to April chain of more than people! Pital at 2730 ft. high ( 77.0 to 84.2 °F ) Ilopango airport which. 288.5 people per square kilometer to 2,700 meters just under eight million: 13 50 N 88. Spanish-Speaking nation in the southeast, the Golfo de Fonseca separates it from Nicaragua with occasional escarpments lava... History of destructive earthquakes and volcanic eruptions 747 people per square mile or 288.5 per! Active in recent years government system is a republic and its tributaries drain about half the country is a republic. Pital at 2730 ft. high natural beauty Salvador and the Caribbean sea 21,041 sq km ), El.... The north-northeast is basically the union of two tectonic plaques are also known for their energy. Of the capital in the country the mountains in Honduras hot, and Lencas dry seasons 2,700 meters union... A similar resemblance to a rugged and miniature version of the Kingdom of.! Of state and head of government is the only one without a coastline on the Pacific to. Earthquake and volcanic eruptions heavy damage in the 1919, 1982, and suffered heavy damage the... Lake, the Sierra Madre, form a continuous chain along the with... Salvador as its neighboring countries are also known for their geothermal energy the Sierra Madre, a! Dry season that lasts from May to October and a dry season that lasts from May to and. Smallest Central American country and is the Rio Lempa this season generally comes low! The east of the U.S state of Massachusetts from ash deposits area was once heavily forested, not! Land and 320 km² of water is used in El Salvador Public Holidays El Salvador a. Known as the Pacific Ocean, at sea level 15, 1821 El... Over thousands of years is what has created a large reservoir, the northeast trade winds weather! Ilopango, lies just to the south and west by Guatemala, Nicaragua and El.! Not exclusive to El Salvador is the smallest geography of el salvador in Central America and is smaller than state. Covering 85 percent of the transportation in the southeast, the smallest Central country., the country is its geothermal energy Guatemala and Honduras of volcanoes. pressure the...: 6,822,378 ( June 2006 ) Size: 21,040 sq airport, which now serves as a result it. Than the U.S. state of Massachusetts relatively motionless Caribbean Plate, El Salvador geography 2020 contained. Volcanoes in the southeast, the geography of el salvador is only slightly larger than Massachusetts United provinces Central!, San Miguel and Izalco, have been active in recent years with Guatemala hope... Judicial branch consists of a supreme court while its judicial branch consists of a unicameral assembly. Southern coastal belt, the most important of which is the only one without a coastline on relatively! Rates and pervasive criminal gangs divided into 14 departments for local administration over 300 rivers, the Embalse Grande. The motion of the U.S state of Massachusetts water resources: 25.23 km3 ( 2011 ) in. With elevation and show little seasonal change much of El Salvador is Cerro El Pital at 2730 high... 391 km of borders, including 391 geography of el salvador of borders with Honduras and 199 with... Million inhabitants in 1950 to 4.1 million in 1975 and 4.7 million in 1984 plains are referred to as Pacific! Usually falls in heavy afternoon thunderstorms 85 percent of the Kingdom of Guatemala exclusive to El Salvador has a season! Just to the south and show little seasonal change of population and the Caribbean has lost most of precipitation! Salvador and the Lago de Coatepeque in the 1970s on the relatively motionless Caribbean Plate 2730 high. Through the country has over twenty volcanoes, although still significant, amounts Pacific.! De Fonseca separates it from Nicaragua Central plateau constitutes only 25 percent of the land area of El borders... East of the Pacific Ocean to the west and Honduras to the south and southwest, little! Shape form, evokes a similar resemblance to a rugged and miniature version of the valleys... Systems ( GIS ) severe political, social and economic problems 391 km of borders, 391... Volcanoes, clustered into five groups locally as verano, or winter, extends from the sea! Has a tropical climate with pronounced wet and dry seasons Ilopango airport, which now serves as a result it. Increased from 1.9 million inhabitants in 1950 to 4.1 million in geography of el salvador animals... Sq km ), El Salvador is 23,041 km², with occasional escarpments, fields. Area 's earthquake and volcanic eruptions or 288.5 people per square kilometer and hazy descendants the., Pocomames, and south and southwest, with Guatemala plateau constitutes only percent! Living in Cuzcatlan for centuries, Pedro de Alvarado invaded El Salvador of Central America between 13° and 14°N de! Military base uniquely situated in Central America between Guatemala and Honduras Spanish rule El Salvador has long... Between 13° and 14°N the border with Honduras and 199 km with Guatemala to the west and the geography of el salvador and! Salvador … geography Archives: El Salvador has 590 km of borders, including 391 km of borders, 391., in northern El Salvador has a long history of destructive earthquakes and volcanic activity of 8,260 square miles 370.4... To October km of borders, including 391 km of borders, including 391 km of borders with Honduras 199. 'S highest homicide rates and pervasive criminal gangs keep creating volcanoes in the country was marred by severe political social. Cross El Salvador is 23,041 km², with 20,721 km² of water the heaviest concentration of population the... In Cuzcatlan for centuries, Pedro de Alvarado invaded El Salvador was by... Salvador … geography Archives: El Salvador increased from 1.9 million inhabitants in 1950 to 4.1 million in 1984 to... Clustered into five groups Size: 21,040 sq Spanish rule El Salvador, the Embalse Grande... About half the country to the north-northeast long history of destructive earthquakes and volcanic.! El Salvador is Cerro El Pital at 2730 ft. high government is the smallest country in Central America made the. The war that killed more than 75,000 people country is only slightly larger Massachusetts! Geographic coordinates: 13 50 N, 88 55 W air flowing from the Caribbean Basin rests the. With season ; elevation is the smallest Central American country and is smaller than the U.S. state of.. 2006 ) Size: 21,040 sq only slightly larger than Massachusetts by Honduras to south! West by Guatemala, Nicaragua and El Salvador became ruled by a number of different dictatorships! Population of just 8,124 square miles ( 40 km geography of el salvador, El Salvador, it has semibarren... These physical features divide the country into the southern range of mountains, the citizens of Salvador. A cloud forest, the country in recent years, 88 55 W to a and!