Nevertheless, Lands again stripped. If you continue to use this site we will assume that you are happy with it. Encyclopedia of Irish History and Culture. Encyclopedia.com. 6. Thomas Holand’s initial foundation of 1398 was intended to pray for the souls of King Richard II, Queen Isabella, Holand himself and his uncle John Holand, duke of Exeter. 1981. Encyclopedia.com gives you the ability to cite reference entries and articles according to common styles from the Modern Language Association (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style, and the American Psychological Association (APA). Get this from a library! Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. At Holand’s death the priory was incomplete, but by the time of his reburial there, in 1412, its buildings are likely to have been well advanced. Curtis, E. Richard II in Ireland, 1394 – 5, and Submissions of the Irish Chiefs. Whereas Edward, prince of Wales, had been advanced from duke to prince of Aquitaine, his brother Lionel had remained duke of Clarence and earl of Ulster. Richard II became the first king to visit Ireland since 1210 and the last to do so before the 1690s. He is loyal to King Richard. HISTO…, BIBLIOGRAPHY Through shrewd military acumen Brian Bo…, LOCATION, SIZE, AND EXTENT 1400: Richard II dies in Pontefract Castle Again, the dating is obscure, and in one case I had, by internal evidence, to locate the letter as being written in 1399, during It is, however, of considerable interest; the military side of Richard's dealings with Ireland now seems to be a most important element Richard returns from Ireland (Act 3, Scene 2) Richard returns hurriedly from Ireland. On 22 May, while preparations for the royal crossing were at their height, a clerk of Thomas Holand’s called William Glyn received from the treasury a consignment of jewels, valued at £200, which his uncle, the executed earl of Arundel, had lodged with his sister, the countess of Kent, Holand’s own mother, at the time of his arrest and trial. Back at Windsor Castle, near London, Queen Isabel mourns his absence. the time Mortimer was killed in 1398. Did Richard II really plan to install his nephew as king of Ireland? Search. In his 1997 biography of Richard II Nigel Saul described Holand’s role as ‘an interim one’ and relegated Holand to the status of a ‘stalking horse’ for Richard himself. This can be seen in his accumulation of wealth through the heavy fines he imposed, his expeditions to Ireland in 1394 and 1399 and his pursuit of peace with France. If Richard had hoped to establish his nephew as a great power in the West Midlands, then events in Ireland completely changed his plans. Whereas Edward Bruce was destroyed by his subjects, de Vere had virtually no contact at all with the Irish, and during his brief rule he governed entirely through his appointees to Dublin bureaucracy.    However, the English chronicler Thomas Walsingham—a source with a keen ear for gossip—claims that, but for the universal hatred of de Vere within the English political community, Richard II would have made a king of his duke. Although Holand had only recently inherited the earldom of Kent and a handsome landed inheritance worth at least £2000 annually, his support for Richard II earned him the newly created dukedom of Surrey, and one of the finest spoils of the recent royal triumph—Warwick Castle and its estates. ENVIRONMENT The settlement that Richard had imposed was therefore fragile and superficial, and it had collapsed by Richard II’s expedition to Ireland in 1394 was the first by an English king since that of John in 1210. Davies, The first English empire, 1093–1343 (Oxford, 2000). Sadly we have only these fragments of evidence, but the concordance of Usk’s claims and the financial records cannot be ignored. It provided Richard II with an opportunity. Quite how de Vere would have been received as king of Ireland can never be known, as he ended his days as a forfeited traitor and exile in Louvain in 1392. But what really transformed the political situation in Ireland was Roger Mortimer’s slaying, at Kellistown, on 20 July 1398. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Further reading: Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Click Here to go to the Personal Histories page. +353-1-293 3568, That field of glory. Curtis, Edmund. Pembroke, Richard de Clare, earl of (c.1130–76), commonly known as ‘Strongbow’. RICHARD II, King of England, younger son of Edward the Black Prince. Johnston, Dorothy. POPULATION Johnston, Dorothy. This English monarch led two expeditions to Ireland, in 1394–5 and 1399. Personal Histories is an initiative by History Ireland, 1927. In order to understand the significance of Richard’s designs for Ireland in the 1390s, it is first necessary to consider the origins of English overlordship. Richard II was the son of the Edward, the Black Prince who was one of the most distinguished warriors of the medieval period. In June 1541 King Henry VIII began to style himself ‘king of Ireland’, abandoning the title of ‘lord’ which English kings had used for four centuries. Between January and May 1395, Richard received the homage and submission of eighty paramount chiefs in Dublin or other centers. However, the political situation in Ireland had deteriorated gravely since the expedition of 1394–5. To this day the remains of the 23 individual cells, in which the monks lived alone, can be seen at Mountgrace, although no traces of Holand’s tomb remain. As part of the effort to shore up the decaying English lordship in Ireland, Richard II arrived in Waterford in October 1394. (British Library) By late-June the king had spent roughly four weeks traversing Leinster and the up-lands of Wicklow… King of Leinster, Art Macmurrough (right), sallies forth to parley with Thomas, earl of Gloucester (left), Richard II’s envoy on his second (1399) Irish campaign. . ." WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 93 (1963): 135–149. Usk’s claim has long been ignored by historians, but a compelling corroboration can be found in a set of accounts in the London Public Record Office, relating to Holand’s Irish lieutenancy. However, the date of retrieval is often important. The Life and Death of King Richard the Second, commonly called Richard II, is a history play by William Shakespeare believed to have been written in approximately 1595. MIGRATION Like Richard II’s other closest allies, Thomas Holand was brought to account for his complicity in the king’s actions in the final two years of his reign. in Sept., 1399. Encyclopedia of Irish History and Culture. In June 1399, Louis I, Duke of Orléans, gained control of the court of the insane Charles VI of France. In September 1398 an argument broke out between the Duke of Hereford, Henry Bolingbroke, and the Duke of Norfolk. Richard II., King of England, Lord of Ireland, was born at Bordeaux, 3rd April 1366. Richard II, the only king of England to visit Ireland between 1210 and 1689, did so in order to retain his lordship there in the face of two threats: a mounting Gaelic recovery, particularly in Leinster under Art MacMur-rough, and a dangerous depopulation of the English colony, caused partly by plague and by the flight of colonists before the Irish advance. He was certainly not afraid to make grand gestures, and had already conferred the palatinate lordship of Ireland on an alien in 1385. Once across the Irish Sea, Richard encountered a group of Gaelic Irish kings who were probably the most capable and talented of the entire late-medieval period. 16 Oct. 2020 . While Richard was on another expedition in Ireland, Hereford landed in England and rapidly gathered support. Bolingbroke lands at Ravenspur in Yorkshire and claims the crown of England. However, Richard was largely uninterested in military affairs and was more famous for his sophisticated court. Unpublished Letters from Richard II in Ireland. Whatever the exact nature of Richard’s plans, the vanished tomb at Mountgrace Priory once held the remains of a man whose political destiny had lain far to the west. The Earl of March was sent to Ireland as Justiciary, with extraordinary powers. Throughout the campaign of the lords appellant against Richard II, the Mortimer estates had been under the administration of a trust headed by the king’s most hated enemy, the earl of Arundel. The most striking object in the collection is a coronet, which was a famous possession of Holand’s maternal grandfather, the great financier and wool magnate earl of Arundel, who had died in 1376. It has long been assumed that the English kings from Henry II to Henry VII were content to rule Ireland as lords, but the events of the later years of the reign of Richard II show that this may not have been the case. Although Richard made no immediate move to punish his enemies once he had regained power in 1389, it is undoubtedly the case that he did not forget the involvement of the Mortimers in his humiliation and in the destruction of his friends, especially de Vere. In the following months, amid heavy fighting in some areas, negotiations ensued with the other Irish kings, most of whom, seeing the ease of Richard's success in Leinster, decided to submit on terms. If we are to believe the chronicler Adam Usk, a well-connected lawyer whose Oxford education had been funded by the Mortimer family, Holand had already been sent to Ireland to arrest his brother-in-law. This English monarch led two expeditions to Ireland in 1394-5 and the summer of 1399. "Richard II in Ireland On 27 July, and still apparently unaware of Mortimer’s death, Richard II issued letters dismissing him from the lieutenancy of Ireland. Perhaps this is why Thomas Holand and his uncle, John, earl of Huntingdon, were the prime movers behind the abortive re-adeption of Richard II in January 1400. (Westminster Hall). King of Leinster, Art Macmurrough (right), sallies forth to parley with Thomas, earl of Gloucester (left), Richard II’s envoy on his second (1399) Irish campaign. The sudden reawakening of Richard’s personal interest in Ireland is difficult to explain, as only two years previously he had considered using its lieutenancy as a means of keeping his hated uncle and recent enemy, Duke Thomas of Gloucester, away from court. ." In February 1398 Holand had been granted a licence to found a priory for the Carthusian Order at Mountgrace, beneath the Cleveland Hills, not far from the Yorkshire town of Northallerton. Some did so voluntarily, hoping that by becoming his subjects he would shield them from colonial aggression, and Richard too seems to have arrived at a greater understanding of Irish grievances, and was intent on a more conciliatory approach. The ruler of Berkeley Castle in Gloucestershire, where York's army meets Bolingbroke's army in Act II, scene iii. Richard II was the son of the Edward, the Black Prince who was one of the most distinguished warriors of the medieval period. Brian Boru CLIMATE However, Henry was a reluctant conqueror, and both papal bull and emerald ring lay unused for sixteen years, until the dramatic polarisation in Irish politics caused by the stormy career of Dermot Macmurrough, king of Leinster. The capture of Richard II in Wales in the middle of August 1399, and his subsequent deposition, is a well-known story, but what became of the putative king of Ireland? Richard II’s expedition to Ireland in 1394 was the first by an English king since that of John in 1210. in Ireland 1394-5 and submissions of the Irish chiefs. By way of encouragement in this enterprise, Adrian also sent Henry an emerald ring for the investiture of Ireland’s putative conqueror. MacMurrough was attacked by force and eventually compelled to submit, as did his vassal kings, O'Byrne, O'Toole, and O'Nolan. FLORA AND FAUNA Henry's claim to the throne was poor. In 1394, finding it necessary to assert his supremacy in Ireland, he came over with a large fleet and an army of 4,000 men-at-arms and 30,000 archers, and entered the Suir on 2nd October. He defeated Richard in battle, took him prisoner, and probably had him murdered. Johnston, Dorothy. Traditionally, this appointment has been regarded as a forerunner to Richard II’s own return to Ireland, by which time the preparations for the crossing were well under way. ETHNIC GROUPS Once across the Irish Sea, it was Richard's fate to encounter a group of able Gaelic Irish kings, who were probably the most capable … The fall of Robert de Vere in 1388 marked the reversion to the conventional mechanisms of rule through the royal lieutenant, but the manner of the duke’s destruction left Richard with a lingering sense of bitterness against Ireland’s most powerful dynasty, the Mortimer earls of March and Ulster. Are these the preparations for the coronation of a king of Ireland in the Great Hall of Dublin Castle? More significant still was the royal order of 22 January 1399 empowering Thomas Holand to accept all the homages due to the English king for the remainder of his term as lieutenant. In November 1387 the army raised by Arundel and his friends was almost certainly funded from the revenues of the Mortimer inheritance, as the payments of cash by Thomas Mortimer can be traced in the surviving household records. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. From 1389 when Richard declared himself to be of age, he influenced more closely the direction of government. He was forced to abdicate, and Hereford was crowned king as Henry IV. Thomas Holand and the principal group of conspirators were lynched by the townsmen of Cirencester, where they had fled after a failed attempt to assassinate Henry IV during the New Year celebrations at Windsor Castle. Richard II landed at Waterford on 1 June 1399, and it has long been accepted that the purpose of the mission was to bring to heel those Irish princes who had broken their submissions of 1394–5. Of course, Thomas Holand never had his day in Dublin Castle, as news reached Richard II in early July 1399 of the landing of Henry of Lancaster, the event which precipitated the collapse of his kingship. He gathered an army an… Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/richard-ii-ireland. Copyright © 2020 History Publications Ltd, Unit 9, 78 Furze Road, Sandyford, Dublin 18, Ireland | Tel. " @en " Richard II in Ireland, 1394-5, and submissions of the Irish chiefs. Richard II is depicted as a much younger man, kneeling before his three favourite saints (left to right)-St Edmund the Martyr, St Edward the Confessor and St John the Baptist. 277 and personal names, the scribe evidently thinking this a point of little importance. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1927. LANGUAGES [E Curtis] ." Richard II, chronicle play in five acts by William Shakespeare, written in 1595–96 and published in a quarto edition in 1597 and in the First Folio. Robert de Vere, Duke of Ireland, Marquess of Dublin, and 9th Earl of Oxford KG (16 January 1362 – 22 November 1392) was a favourite and court companion of King Richard II of England.He was the ninth Earl of Oxford and the first and only Duke of Ireland and Marquess of Dublin. Henry II’s alarm at the violence raging in Ireland in the late 1160s was heightened by the role of some of his own subjects, especially a group of Anglo-Norman adventurers, headed by Richard de Clare (the famous ‘Strongbow’), who had been recruited by Dermot to aid him in his wars against Rory O’Connor, king of Connacht. Bolingbroke had not taken his exile, or loss of inheritance from Gaunt, lightly. Although popularly referred to as ‘the coronation portrait’, this was in fact painted c. 1395, when Richard II adopted the invented armorial bearings of Edward the Confessor as his own. which aims to capture the individual histories of Irish In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Therefore, be sure to refer to those guidelines when editing your bibliography or works cited list. As he was only in his eleventh year, the government was carried on by his uncles. In 1397 he made a principality of his favourite county of Chester, and endowed it with the trappings of a high steward and constable, and even its own herald. Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps, Encyclopedia of Irish History and Culture. File:Richard II arms.png. " Richard II in Ireland, 1394-5 and submissions of the Irish chiefs " @en " Richard II in Ireland, 1394-5, and submissions of the Irish chiefs. From the illustrated eye witness account of the campaign by Jean Creton. The three men all perished in 1400 after Henry IV’s usurpation. [With a facsimile and a map.] Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia.com cannot guarantee each citation it generates. Richard used the opportunity of peace … “Richard II and the Submissions of Gaelic Ireland.” He exacted, for example, £10,000 from the Londoners in 1392. However, the second half of the fourteenth century heralded a more active English royal engagement in Ireland. Nevertheless, Henry may have long cherished the addition of ‘king of Ireland’ to his already impressive string of dignities, and he certainly believed that this is what Adrian IV had intended. J. Lydon, The English in medieval Ireland (Dublin, 1984). In his place Richard appointed his nephew—and the brother of the widowed countess of March and Ulster—Thomas Holand. Although Richard II's Irish expedition of 1394–95 has attracted considerable scholarly attention, the focus has largely been on Richard's relations with the colonial administration in Ireland, pointing mainly to the colonial government's plea for greater royal investment in the colony as the main factor underpinning Richard's decision to intervene in Ireland. Although Mortimer blood flowed richly in the veins of Richard of York, the royal lieutenant in the late 1440s, no further experiments were made to alter the title of English royal overlordship until the time of Henry VIII. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. From the illustrated eye witness account of the campaign by Jean Creton. In 1399 Henry Bolingbroke, the exiled son of John of Gaunt, landed with an invasion force while Richard was in Ireland. Patrick Moy in the title role of Richard II. It was acclaimed by PD James as 'unlikely to be surpassed in scholarship, comprehensiveness, or in … Richard II. SEE ALSO English Government in Medieval Ireland; Gaelic Recovery; Gaelic Society in the Late Middle Ages; Norman Invasion and Gaelic Resurgence; Primary Documents: King Richard II in Ireland (1395). In England and Ireland in the Later Middle Ages, edited by James Francis Lydon. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. "Richard II and the Submissions of Gaelic Ireland." "Richard II's Expedition to Ireland." No need to register, buy now! In Ulster Niall Mor O’Neill was at war with the Mortimer earl and was clamouring for royal protection, while Art Macmurrough was making hay in the sunshine of royal absence. Ireland had now entered the international arena, and England was confronted in her foreign affairs, for the first time, by ” the Irish Question.” Richard II – vain, impulsive, and ambitious – had unwittingly become a candidate for the Imperial Crown of the ”Holy Roman Empire” by right of his wife. TOPOGRAPHY Married to Elizabeth, heiress of the defunct de Burgh earls of Ulster, Lionel transmitted his father’s authority both through the official channels of the Dublin bureaucracy and through his wife’s kinship networks until his death in 1369. In 1361 Edward III had sent his second son, Lionel, to govern Ireland as his lieutenant. In 1374 O’Brien of Thomond attempted to resurrect the high kingship in his own person, but the claim came to nothing. (October 16, 2020). The final resting-place of Ireland’s king-who-never-was is far removed from the dramatic scenes of his meteoric rise and fall. The 27-year-old de Vere was already earl of Oxford, but his landed inheritance was a woefully depleted holding in Essex, and he had no pre-existing connection with the country of which he was now not merely duke but also full palatine lord. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. Richard II had left Ireland in a precarious state in 1395, and his diplomatic attempts at solving the problems there quickly unravelled. These two ex-Appellants accused each other of treason. That same year the king allowed the Holand family to quarter their arms with those of his beloved saint, Edward the Confessor, a special mark of favour. On 24 April 1916 (Easter Monday), a group of men and women seized a number of prominent public buildings in central Dublin and proclaime…, Postcolonialism is a generalized term used to describe the variety of events that have arisen in the aftermath of European decolonization since the n…, Richard Hickock and Perry Smith Trial: 1960, Richard D. McDonough Golf Scholarship Foundation, https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/richard-ii-ireland. King Richard II in Ireland. He expresses the belief that, as king, he will always have God on his side but quickly despairs when he learns that the Welsh have deserted to Bolingbroke or dispersed. The earldom of Ulster, for instance, was now the possession of Richard's heir, Roger Mortimer, and when Richard left Ireland after having appointed him as lieutenant, a clash with O'Neill was inevitable, since the latter had overrun much of the territory of the earldom. However, Richard was largely uninterested in military affairs and was more famous for his sophisticated court. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. The policy of rapprochement with the English crown did not suit Louis's political ambitions, and for this reason he found it opportune to allow Henry Bolingbroke to leave for England. But what really transformed Holand’s fortunes was Richard II’s destruction of his enemies in September 1397. add their voice to the historical record. In January of 1399, John of Gaunt died. Richard hurriedly returned from Ireland, but his cause was lost. References and Further Reading. Richard’s Irish aspirations ended in failure, both for himself and for the English interest in Ireland. However, Henry was less concerned with the semantics of styling than with the realities of power, and in the Treaty of Windsor of 1175 he accepted Rory as high king of the Irish, but as his own sub-king—a title contingent on his good behaviour. giving them a chance to be heard, remembered and to A lord loyal to King Richard. Saul tells us that Holand was not endowed with great estates in Ireland—in fact he was entrusted with the keeping, rent-free, of all the Mortimer estates, including the lordships of Ulster and Trim, for the duration of the minority of the infant earl of March and Ulster, who would not in fact attain his majority until 1413. R. Frame, The political development of the British Isles, 1100–1400 (Oxford, 1989). In the 1250s Brian O’Neill proffered his own claim, but undoubtedly the most dangerous of the pretenders was Edward Bruce, brother of Robert, king of the Scots. Henry II’s great expedition of 1171–2 did much to lay the foundations of English domination, but the question of the nature of the royal title remained a matter of ambiguity. TRANSPORTATION The story of Clontarf, from battleground to garden suburb, Darkest Dublin: The story of the Church Street disaster and a pictorial account of the slums of Dublin in 1913. Gloucester and Arundel were dead, Warwick was imprisoned for life on the Isle of Man, and their heirs had been disinherited in perpetuity. This was a gallant company, to say the least. https://www.encyclopedia.com/international/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/richard-ii-ireland, "Richard II in Ireland However, by the 1170s Pope Alexander III was unwilling to sanction the creation of a new kingdom, and, moreover, Ireland already had a high king (albeit a far from undisputed one) in the person of Rory O’Connor of Connacht. But an examination of the hitherto neglected indentures for the army of 1399 show that it numbered about 3000, less than half the size of that which he had brought with him four years before. It would seem that Richard II had decided to afford his friend (and alleged lover) the plenitude of power that Henry II had  envisaged for John in 1177. After three months of grisly display, Holand’s head was returned to his widow, Joan, for burial with his remains. 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