[13], Subadult and smaller adult Nile crocodiles use their bodies and tails to herd groups of fish toward a bank, and eat them with quick sideways jerks of their heads. Crocodilul de Nil se intalneste in majoritatea lacurilor, mlastinilor si raurilor din Africa, cu exceptia deserturilor Sahara, Namib si Kalahari. De îndată ce puii au ieșit din ou, femela îi ia unul câte unul în gură și îi duce în apă. [65] Genetic studies of Nile crocodiles captured in the wild in Florida have revealed that the specimens are all closely related to each other, suggesting a single source of the introduction. Exemplarele care traiesc in rauri si fluvii au un colorit mai deschis, cu nuante mai contrastante decat cele care-si duc viata in lacuri si mlastini. These are officially due to unknown causes but analysis has indicated that environmental pollutants caused by humans, particularly the burgeoning coal industry, are the primary cause. [21] The Nile crocodile's current range of distribution extends from the regional tributaries of the Nile in Sudan and Lake Nasser in Egypt to the Cunene of Angola, the Okavango Delta of Botswana, and the Olifants River in South Africa. [3][42][27][48], The bulk and mass of individual crocodiles can be fairly variable, some animals being relatively slender, while others being very robust; females are often bulkier than males of a similar length. Ochii, așezați înapoi și mult în sus, au o privire cruntă. Nile crocodiles of under two years are much more rarely observed than larger specimens, and more seldom seen than the same age young in several other types of crocodilian. [74] However, Guggisberg (1972) had seen examples of birds picking scraps of meat from the teeth of basking crocodiles (without entering the mouth) and prey from soil very near basking crocodiles, so felt it was not impossible that a bold, hungry bird may occasionally nearly enter a crocodile's mouth, but not likely as a habitual behaviour. In 240 de milioane de ani, acesti pradatori si rudele lor au ajuns sa stapaneasca lumea dintre uscat si apele adanci. Capul mare și plat are un bot lung, în vârful căruia, pe partea superioară, se găsesc nările. Only the largest individuals engaging in aestivation leave the burrow to sun on warmest days, otherwise these crocodiles rarely left their burrows. română: Crocodilul de Nil; English: Nile crocodile, Nile Crocodile; Afrikaans: Nylkrokodil; Akan: Nile Dɛnkyɛm; العربية: تمساح النيل; български: Нилски крокодил; brezhoneg: Krokodil an Nil; català: Cocodril del Nil; čeština: Krokodýl nilský; Чӑвашла: Нил крокодилĕ; dansk: Nilkrokodille One of the fish predators seriously affected by the unchecked mesopredator fish populations (due again to crocodile declines) is humans, particularly with respect to tilapia, an important commercial fish that has declined due to excessive predation. [11] Most fatal attacks occur when a person is standing a few feet away from water on a non-steep bank, is wading in shallow waters, actively swimming or have limbs dangling over a boat or pier. [7] Crocodile teeth are not used for tearing up flesh, but to sink deep into it and hold on to the prey item. [181][182] Additional ecological surveys and establishing management programs are necessary to resolve these questions. In fact, probably much of the food from crocodile stomachs may come from scavenging carrion, and the crocodiles could be viewed as performing a similar function at times as do vultures or hyenas on land. Techniques in the immobilisation and handling of the Nile crocodile. [3][64], Nile crocodiles are an invasive species in North America, and several specimens have been recently captured in South Florida, though no signs that the population is reproducing in the wild have been found. Rogue - Crocodilul. [3], In a study, the serrated hinged terrapin (Pelusios sinuatus) (also sometimes referred to as the "water tortoise") was more commonly reported in the stomach contents of adult crocodiles from Kruger National Park than any single mammal species. Crocodilul de Nil este o specie de mari dimensiuni, răspândită în Africa sub-sahariană, unde a fost semnalată în peste 25 de țări. Their ability to lie concealed with most of their bodies under water, combined with their speed over short distances, makes them effective opportunistic hunters of larger prey. Cele 30-70 de ouă, cu coaja groasă, acoperite de nisip, sunt păzite de femelă timp de 90 de zile, până când puii încep să țipe. [35] As is the saltwater crocodile, the Nile crocodile is considered a species with medium-width snout relative to other extant crocodilian species. [3][42][86] In Uganda and Zambia, lungfish comprised nearly two-thirds of the piscivorian diet for crocodiles. Membrele scurte, așezate pe laturile corpului, se termină cu degete; cele anterioare au degetele libere, iar cele posterioare au degetele unite printr-o membrană înotătoare. Notable favorites include Pila ovata, which lives just under water on rocky surfaces (mainly found in crocodiles from Uganda) and Lanistes ovum, which is found submerged among water plants and on detritus (mainly from stomachs in Zambia). Crocodilul de Nil trăiește în fluviul Nil sau în lacurile formate de acesta. [14] Most observed fishing by crocodiles takes place in waters less than 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in) deep and fish are often caught when they swim into contact with the crocodile's head, even literally right into the reptile's mouth. [3] In some regions, males have reportedly mated with several females, perhaps any female that enters his claimed territory, though in most regions annual monogamy appears to be most common in this species. While C. checchiai was about the same size as the larger modern Nile crocodiles, and shared similar physical characteristics to the modern species; C. anthropophagus and C. thorbjarnarsoni were both somewhat larger, with projected total lengths up to 7.5–7.6 m (24 ft 7 in–24 ft 11 in). Numai câțiva crocodili ating maturitatea. [3][70] Although they can remain practically motionless for hours on end, whether basking or sitting in shallows, Nile crocodiles are said to be constantly aware of their surroundings and aware of the presence of other animals. Crocodilul de Nil poate atinge 6 m lungime. Sunt vânători mari care au fălci extrem de puternice. [3][7] However, Alderton (1998) stated that a study using radiology found that gastroliths were seen to internally aid the grinding of food during digestion for a small Nile crocodile. [19], The Nile crocodile is presently the most common crocodilian in Africa, and is distributed throughout much of the continent. This predator can destroy about 50% of studied Nile crocodile eggs on its own, often being successful (as are other nest predators) in light of the trance-like state that the mother crocodile enters while brooding or taking advantage of moments where she is distracted or needs to leave the nest. [161], At a reported incubation period of about 90 days, the stage is notably shorter than that of the American alligator (110–120 days) but slightly longer than that of the mugger crocodile. [7][155] The female may micturate sporadically on the soil to keep it moist, which prevents soil from hardening excessively. The arid land surrounding Lake Turkana is a relatively barren region for diverse or numerous prey other than fish, so fish are an exceptionally important food source to crocodiles there. [3][42] Nonetheless, starting around 1.5 m (4 ft 11 in), they can become capable mammalian hunters and their ability to overpower a wide range of mammals increases along with their size. [1] The CITES lists the Nile crocodile under Appendix I (threatened with extinction) in most of its range; and under Appendix II (not threatened, but trade must be controlled) in the remainder, which either allows ranching or sets an annual quota of skins taken from the wild. Dodman, T., Dagou Diop, N.M. & Khady, S. [3][7] The only frequently recorded lizard prey is the large Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus), although this mesopredator may be eaten fairly regularly, as they often share similar habitat preferences, whenever a crocodile is able to ambush the stealthy monitor, which is more agile on land than the bulkier crocodile. Once they reach their juvenile stage, very large African rock pythons and big cats remain as the only predatory threat to young crocodiles. [11], In studies preceding the slaughter of crocodiles for the leather trade, when there were believed to be many more Nile crocodiles, a roughly estimated 1,000 human fatalities per annum by Nile crocodiles were posited with a roughly equal number of aborted attacks. When compared to Nile crocodiles from their native Africa, the Florida wild specimens are most closely related to South African Nile crocodiles. [49][151], According to Bourquin (2008), the average breeding female in southern Africa is between 3 and 3.6 m (9 ft 10 in and 11 ft 10 in). Nile crocodiles with skulls this size are likely to measure in the range of 5.4 to 5.6 m (17 ft 9 in to 18 ft 4 in), which is also the length of the animals according to the museum where they were found. Natural predation on quelea. Compared to the tender behaviour of the female accepting the male, copulation is rather rough (even described as "rape"-like by Graham & Beard (1968)) in which the male often roars and pins the female underwater. Exista in jur de 23 de specii de crocodili, iar multe din ele au disparut. [94] Additionally, crocodiles readily take dead or dying fish given the opportunity, thus are likely to incidentally improve the health of some fish species’ populations as this lessens their exposure to diseases and infection. Outside water, crocodiles can meet competition from other dominant savannah predators, notably big cats, which in Africa are represented by lions, cheetahs, and leopards. In particular, the genus Kobus is often among the most vulnerable because it forages primarily in wetland areas and seeks to evade more prolific mammalian predators (such as hyenas, lions, etc.) Some variation occurs relative to environment; specimens from swift-flowing waters tend to be lighter in colour than those dwelling in murkier lakes or swamps, which provides camouflage that suits their environment, an example of clinal variation. [21][178] At some point in the 20th century, the Nile crocodile appeared to have been extirpated as a breeding species from Egypt, but has locally re-established in some areas such as the Aswan Dam. Dacă femela nu ajunge la timp, puii au un dinte special numit "dinte de ou" cu care sparg coaja oului. Crocodilul de Nil este o specie de mari dimensiuni, răspândită în Africa sub-sahariană, unde a fost semnalată în peste 25 de țări. [8][29] Hatchlings quickly lose a hardened piece of skin on the top of their mouths called the egg tooth, which they use to break through their eggshells at hatching. [7] Typical size has been reported to be as much as 4.5 to 5.5 m (14 ft 9 in to 18 ft 1 in), but this is excessive for actual average size per most studies and represents the upper limit of sizes attained by the largest animals in a majority of populations. [7][72][171] While the mother crocodile will react aggressively toward potential predators and has been recorded chasing and occasionally catching and killing such interlopers into her range, due to the sheer number of animals who feed on baby crocodiles and the large number of hatchlings, she is more often unsuccessful at deflecting such predators. [43] In East Africa, they are found mostly in rivers, lakes, marshes, and dams, favoring open, broad bodies of water over smaller ones. 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